Table of Contents

Chicago Citations: Author-Date System

The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed. Ref. Z 253.U69 2010 or online) is composed of two different documentation systems:

  • Author-Date system: preferred by those in the sciences
  • Notes-Bibliography style: preferred by those in the humanities

The examples on this page are in the Author-Date system. Be sure to find out from your professor which Chicago documentation system they would like you to use*

*Note: The Fairfield University History Department requires its students to use Notes-Bibliography style.

Commonly Cited Sources in Chicago: Author-Date system:

Book | Ebook | Journal Article | Magazine Article | Newspaper Article | Website, Blog or Twitter Posting

E-mail, List-serv or Personal Communication | Audio/Video | Image or Advertisement | Indirect Source

In-Text Citation Examples | Other Citation Resources


Book

Choose a specific book type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Book with One Author

Chicago Manual 15.9


Reference List Format:


In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book.

Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Zelizer, Barbie. 2003. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through

the Camera's Eye. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

(Zelizer 2003, 11)

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Book with Two or Three Authors

Chicago Manual 15.9


Reference List Format:

In-Text Citation:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name, and Second Author's

First Name and Last Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book.

Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Mock, Douglas W., and Geoffrey A. Parker. 1997. The Evolution of Sibling

Rivalry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

(Mock and Parker 1997, 73)

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Book with Four or More Authors

Chicago Manual 15.9


Reference List Format:


In-Text Citation:

First Author's Last Name, First Author's First Name, Second Author's First

Name and Last Name, Third Author's First Name and Last

Name, Fourth Author's First Name and Last Name, Fifth

Author's First Name and Last Name, and Sixth Author's First

Name and Last Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book.

Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Dasco, Sheryl Tatar, Clifford C. Dasco, Connie U. Brelhan, Kirk C. Harlow,

Margaret S. Jaffee-Neer, Marilyn Rumsey, and Ellison H.

Wittels. 1995. Managed Care Answer Book.

New York: Panel Publishers.

 

(Dasco et al. 1995, 122)

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No Author

Chicago Manual 14.79


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Anonymous. Title. Date of Publication. Place of Publication: Name of

Publisher.

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th ed.

2000. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Note: If a book is listed as 'anonymous', then that word should be included at the beginning of the citation. If not, then the reference can be listed the same way or begin with the title instead.

(American Heritage Dictionary, 2000, 156)

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Organization as Author

Chicago Manual 14.92 & 15.36


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citations:

Name of Organization. Date of Publication. Title of Book. Place of

Publication: Name of Publisher.

American Psychiatric Association. 1998. Practice Guideline for the

Treatment of Patients with Panic Disorder. Washington,

DC: American Psychiatric Association.

(APA 1998, 26)

Or:

(American Psychiatric Association, 1998, 26)

Note: The organization name may be abbreviated in the in-text citation. When using the abbreviation, alphabetize the reference list entry by abbreviated name, instead of the spelled out name.

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Preface, Foreword, Introduction

Chicago Manual 15.3 and 14.116


Reference List Format:


In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. Preface (or

Foreword or Introduction) to Title of Book, by Book's Author,

inclusive page numbers. Place of Publication:

Name of Publisher.

Roosevelt, Franklin D., Jr. 1982. Foreword to Love, Eleanor: Eleanor

Roosevelt and Her Friends, by Joseph P. Lash, vii-viii. Garden

City, NY: Doubleday and Company.

(Roosevelt 1982, vii)

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Book Chapter (Contribution to a Multi-Author Book)

Chicago Manual 15.9 and 14.111-14.117


Reference List Format:


In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of

Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by Name of Editor, inclusive

page numbers. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Benedict, Karen. 1988. "Archival Ethics." In Managing Archives and Archival

Institutions, edited by James Gregory Bradsher, 174-84.

Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Note: The format and example above are for how to cite a chapter within a book that contains chapters written by different authors. If you are citing one chapter in a book written by a single author, see 14.111 in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. for the appropriate citation example.

 

 

(Benedict 1988, 176)

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Edition Other Than First

Chicago Manual 14.118 and 15.3


Reference List Format:


In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book.

Edition number ed. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Buktato, Danuta and Marvin A. Daehler. 2004. Child Development: A

Thematic Approach. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

(Buktato and Daehler 2004)

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Translated Work

Chicago Manual 15.9 and 14.88


Reference List Format:


In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. Title of Book.

Translated by Name of Translator(s). Place of Publication:

Name of Publisher.

Freud, Sigmund. 1999. The Interpretation of Dreams. Translated by Joyce

Crick. New York: Oxford University Press.

(Freud 1999, 28)

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Multivolume Work Published over Several Years (Citing Only 1 Volume)

Chicago Manual 15.39 and 14.121-14.127


Reference List Format:


In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication for Specific

Volume. Title of Volume. Vol. volume number of Title of

Multivolume Work. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher,

Year(s) of Publication.

Churchill, Winston S. 1956. The Birth of Britain. Vol. 1 of A History of the

English-Speaking Peoples. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1956-58.

(Churchill 1956, 88)

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Multivolume Work Published over Several Years (Citing all the Volumes)

Chicago Manual 15.39 and 14.121-14.127


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year(s) of Publication. Title of

Multivolume Work. Number of Volumes vols. Place of

Publication: Name of Publisher.

Cook, Blanche Weisen. 1992-99. Eleanor Roosevelt. 2 vols. New York:

Viking.

Note: Always give the volume numbers in arabic numerals, even if the book has the volume numbers spelled out in roman numerals.

(Cook 1992-99, 1:52)

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Encyclopedia Entry

Chicago Manual 14.247-48


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citations:

Print Encyclopedia Entry:

Name of Encyclopedia. Edition ed. Year of Publication. Place of Publication:

Name of Publisher (if applicable). s.v. "Title of Article."

Encyclopedia Americana. 2006 ed. Danbury: Scholastic. s.v.

"Robot."

Or:

Electronic Encyclopedia Entry:

Name of Encyclopedia. s.v."Title of Article". Article published Month

Day, Year of Publication. Accessed Month Day Year

of Access, URL.

Encyclopedia of Global Religion. s.v. "Kenya." Article published May

14, 2009. Accessed July 17 2012,

http://www.sage-ereference.com/view

/globalreligion /SAGE.xml.

Notes: Well-known encyclopedias are often omitted in the Reference Lists and only included in in-text citations. Above is a more formal example.

For well known references such as Encyclopaedia Britannica, you can omit publisher and location, but the edition must be included. For less known publications, this information should be included.

If items are listed alphabetically, use abbreviation "s.v.", short for sub verbo, or "under the word".

If an electronic encyclopedia, list date of access and URL.

 

 

(Encyclopedia Americana, 2006)

 

Or:

 

(Encyclopedia of Global Religion, 2012)

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Ebook

Choose the Ebook type from the list:

Note: For the treatment of author variations, such as multiple authors, corporate authors, or no author listed, please see Book citation as a model for this element of the citation.

 

More in-text citation information


E-book Chapter

Chicago Manual 15.9 and 14.111-14.117


Reference List Format:


In-Text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of

Chapter." In Title of Book, edited by Name of Editor, inclusive

page numbers. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

Format of e-book.

Khan, Paul. 2012. "A Civil Religion of Human Rights?" In Civil Religion,

Human Rights and International Relations: Connecting

People Across Cultures and Traditions, edited by Porsdam

Helle, 49-65. Northampton: Edward Elgar. EBL e-book.

Note: The format and example below are for how to cite a chapter within a book that contains chapters written by different authors. If you are citing one chapter in a book written by a single author, see 14.111 in The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. for the appropriate citation example.

Include last modified date and URL if applicable.

 

 

(Khan, 2012)

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E-book (Entire Book)

Chicago Manual 14.166, 14.17, and 15.3


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. Title of

Book. Place of Publication: Name of Publisher. Format

of e-book.

Russell, Martin. 2001. Beethoven's Hair: An Extraordinary Historical

Odyssey and a Scientific Mystery Solved. New York:

Broadway Books. ebrary collections e-book.

(Martin 2001, 34)

 

Note: When citing an e-book that does not have fixed page numbers, use a chapter number, section heading, or another reference marker.

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Journal Article

Choose the source type from the list:

Note: For the treatment of author variations, such as multiple authors, corporate authors, or no author listed, please see Book citation as a model for this element of the citation.

More in-text citation information


Journal Article from Library Database

Chicago Manual 15.9 and 14.271


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of

Article." Title of Journal volume number (issue number):

page numbers. Name of Database (accession number)

or stable URL (if available).

Chavez, Linda. 2006. "The Realities of Immigration." Commentary 122

(1): 34-41. Academic OneFile (A147668438).

Or:

Kenseth, Joy. 1981. "Bernini's Borghese Sculptures: Another View."

The Art Bulletin 63 (2): 191-210. http://www.jstor.org/

stable/3050112.

Note: If a database uses a stable URL for an article, use the URL instead of the database name and accession number.

 

(Chavez 2006, 39)

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Online Journal Article

Chicago Manual 14.4-14.8 and 15.9


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of

Article." Title of Journal volume number (issue number):

page numbers. doi:xxxxxxxxxx.

Humphrey, Laura L. 1986. "Structural Analysis of Parent-Child

Relationships in Eating Disorders." Journal of Abnormal

Psychology 95 (4): 395-402. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.95.4.395.

Or:

Salama, Ashraf M. 2008. "A Theory for Integrating Knowledge in

Architectural Design Education." Archnet-IJAR:

International Journal of Architectural Research 2 (1):

100-28. http://archnet.org/gws/IJAR/8821/files_8181/

2.1.07%20-a.%20salama-pp100-128.pdf.

Notes: If a DOI is not available, use a URL.

If a journal uses continuous pagination throughout its volume, the issue number may be omitted.

 

(Humphrey, 1986, 397)

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Print Journal Article

Chicago Manual 15.9, 15.46, and 14.180


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of

Article." Title of Journal volume number (issue number):

page numbers.

Greenberg, Anna. 2001. "Race, Religiosity, and the Women's Vote."

Women & Politics 22 (3): 59-82.

Note: If a journal uses continuous pagination throughout its volume, the issue number may be omitted.

(Greenberg 2001, 61)

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Magazine Article

Choose the source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Magazine Article from Library Database

Chicago Manual 14.271 and 15.47


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title

of Magazine, Month Day of Publication. Name of Database

(accession number) or stable URL (if available).

Brown, Rob. 2012. "The Last Boom Industry." New Statesman, March

26. Academic OneFile (GALE|A28656641).

Note: Usually magazine articles are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding reference list entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

Only provide a URL if it is a permanent or stable link. Most databases will specify this.

 

 

(Brown 2012)

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Magazine Article from Online Website

Chicago Manual 14.200 and 15.47


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication "Title of Article." Title of

Magazine, Month Day of Publication. URL.

Malcolm, Janet. 2011. "Depth of Field." New Yorker, September 26.

http://www.newyorker.com /reporting/2011/09/26/

110926fa _fact_malcolm.

Note: Usually magazine article are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding reference list entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

 

 

(Malcolm 2011)

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Print Magazine Article

Chicago Manual 14.206 and 15.47


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of

Article." Title of Magazine, Month and Day of Publication.

Fineman, Howard. 2007. "The Political Winds of War." Newsweek, May 7.

Note: Usually magazine articles are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding reference list entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

 

 

(Fineman 2007, 45)

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Newspaper Article

Choose the source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Newspaper Article From a Library Database

Chicago Manual 14.271 and 15.47


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title

of Newspaper, Month Day of Publication. Name of Database

(accession number) or stable URL (if available).

Harmon, Amy. 2006. "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust

Them." New York Times, December 10. ProQuest Newspapers

(433461714).

Notes: Usually newspaper articles are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding list entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

Only provide a URL if it is a permanent or stable link. Most databases will specify this.

 

 

(Harmon 2006)

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Article From Newspaper Website

The Chicago Manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite articles from Newspaper websites, but the library suggests that you use the citation below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Title

of Newspaper, Month Day of Publication. Accessed Month Day, Year.

URL.

Harmon, Amy. 2006. "DNA Gatherers Hit a Snag: The Tribes Don't Trust

Them." New York Times, December 10. Accessed January 5, 2007.

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/10/us/10dna.html.

Note: Usually newspaper articles are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding reference list entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

 

 

(Harmon 2006)

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Print Newspaper Article

Chicago Manual 15.47 and 14.206


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of

Article." Title of Newspaper, Month and Day of Publication.

Vogel, Carol. 2007. "Art in the Present Tense: Politics, Loss and

Beauty." New York Times, June 11.

Note: Usually newspaper articles are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding reference list entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

 

 

(Vogel 2007)

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Newspaper Article with Unknown Author

Chicago Manual 15.3, 14.207, and 15.47


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Title of Newspaper. Year of Publication. "Title of Article." Month and Day

of Publication.

Hartford Courant. 2006. "Number of Out-of-Wedlock Births a Record."

November 26.

Note: Usually newspaper articles are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding reference list entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

 

 

(Hartford Courant 2006)

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Letter to the Editor

Chicago Manual 14.208


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. letter to the

editor, Title of Newspaper, Month Day of Publication.

Arsham, Jane. 2006. letter to the editor, Boston Globe, November 9.

 

(Arsham 2006)

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Website or Blog

Choose the source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Website

Chicago Manual 15.3 and 14.243-14.245


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Author of the Site. Year Published, Modified, or Accessed. "Title of Web

Page." Owner/Sponsor of Site. Published, Modified, or

Accessed Month Day. URL.

Watson, Ivan. 2011. "Tunisians Vote in First Election Following Arab

Spring." CNN.com. Last modified October 23.

http://us.cnn.com/2011/10/23/world/africa/tunisia-

elections/index.html.

Notes: Usually web pages are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding reference list entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If the publication date or the date of the web page's last modification is not available, use the date when you accessed the web page.

 

 

 

(Watson 2011)

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Website, no author

Chicago Manual 15.3 and 14.243-14.245


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

"Title of Webpage." Year Published, Modified or Accessed. Title of Website.

Published, Modified or Accessed Month Day. URL.

"Victorian Smoking Rates Hit Record Low." 2012. 9 News. Accessed July 17.

http://news.ninemsn.com.au/health/8501042

/victorian-smoking-rates-hit-record-low.

Notes: Usually websites are only cited within the text of the paper. A corresponding reference list entry is not needed, as long as the item has been documented in the text. Above is a more formal example of the citation.

If the publication date or the date of the web page's last modification is not available, use the date when you accessed the web page.

 

 

(Watson 2011)

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Blog Posting

Chicago Manual 14.243, 14.244, 14.246, and 15.3


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Running Text Example:

In her blog posting dated November 15, 2009, on AHA Today, Jessica Pritchard gives a favorable review of the Inuit Heritage Trust's web resource for teachers.

Reference List Format:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Year of Publication. "Title of

Blog Posting." Title of Blog (blog (if not part of the title))

Month and Day of Publication. URL.

Pritchard, Jessica. 2009. "Inuit Contact: An Arctic Culture Teaching

Resource." AHA Today (blog), November 21. http://blog.

historians.org/education/919/inuit-contact-an-arctic-culture-

teaching-resource.

Note: You may cite blog entries and comments within the text of your paper instead of using an in-text citation. Also you may omit the blog citation from your reference list.

 

 

(Pritchard 2009)

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Twitter Posting

From Chicago Manual of Style Online Q&A


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

In the text, incorporate post into a sentence: In a Twitter post on September 14, 2011, Garret Kiely (@gkiely) wrote, "Using Google, Authors Guild takes 2 mins to connect an author with an 'orphaned work.' bit.ly/nqyjOo."

 

 

Note: Cite post within the text of your paper instead of using an in-text citation. Also you may omit the citation from your reference list.

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E-mail, List-serv or Personal Communication

Choose the source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Email

Chicago Manual 15.3, 14.222, and 15.48


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citations:

Running text example:

In her e-mail to the author on December 6, 2006, Barbara Smith described ...

Notes: Usually e-mails are not listed in the reference list.

E-mails may be cited in the running text of your paper instead of using an in-text citation.

(Barbara Smith, e-mail message to author, December 6, 2006)

Or:

(Barbara Smith, pers. comm.)

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Electronic Mailing List (List-serv)

Chicago Manual 14.223 and 15.3


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Message Author's Last Name, Message Author's First Name. Year of

Posting. E-mail to Name of Mailing List, Month Day of

Posting, URL of archived message (if applicable).

Abungu, Lorna. 2007. E-mail to ICME Electronic Mailing List. April 13.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/icme/message/155.

Note: Electronic mailing list messages are only included in a bibliography if they are accessible via a stable URL.

(Abungu 2007)

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Personal Communication

Chicago Manual 14.222 and 15.48


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

They may be cited in the running text of your paper instead of using an in-text citation.

In a telephone conversation between Sarah Jones and the author on June 22, 2006...

Note: Personal communications such as face to face conversation, telephone conversation, text messages, etc. are not typically included in the reference list.

(Sarah Jones, telephone conversation with author, June 22, 2006)

Or:

(Sarah Jones, pers. comm.)

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Audio/Video

Choose the source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Online Video

Chicago Manual 15.53, 14.280, and 15.3


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Running Text Example:

Thomas Edison's 1898 film Sleighing Scene shows Central Park covered in snow.

Reference List Format:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Date of Work. Title of Film.

Format of film from Source, "Collection Name." URL.

Reference List Example:

Edison, Thomas A. 1898. Sleighing Scene. Copy of 35mm film in RealMedia,

MPEG, and QuickTime formats from the Library of Congress,

"America at Work, America at Leisure: Morion Pictures from

1894-1915." http://hdl.locgov/loc.mbrsmi/lcmp002.m2a38968.

Note: If you are using the author-date system, the manual suggests citing the sources in the running text of your paper instead of using in-text citations. For the reference list, the manual suggests grouping the sources in a separate section.

 

(Edison 1898)

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Motion Picture

Chicago Manual 14.274-14.275, 14.279, 15.3, and 15.33


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Running Text Example:

Alfred Hitchcock's 1954 film Rear Window, released in 2001 by Universal

Pictures on DVD, shows ...

Below is an alternate way to cite motion pictures.

Reference List Format:

Title of Movie. Original Release Date. Directed by Name of Director. Location

of Distributer: Name of Distributer, Release Date, medium.

Reference List Example:

Rear Window. 1954. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Universal City, CA: Universal

Pictures, 2001, DVD.

(Hitchcock 1954)

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Sound Recording

Chicago Manual 14.274-14.276, 15.53, and 15.3


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Running Text Example:

In 1968 Jimi Hendrix gave a memorable performance of Dylan's "All Along the Watchtower," recorded on his album entitled Electric Ladyland.

Below is an alternate way to cite sound recordings.

Reference List Format:

Name of Composer, Conductor, or Performer (depends on who you emphasize in

your paper.) Recording Date. Title of Recording. Name of

Composer, Conductor and/or Performer (if they are not listed at

the beginning of the bibliography entry). Name of Recording

Company Music Number, Copyright date, medium.

Reference List Example

Hendrix, Jimi. 1968. Electric Ladyland. MCA MCAD-10895, 1993,

compact disc.

Note: The manual suggests citing audio-visual materials in the running text of your paper and then grouping the materials under a separate section or discography in the reference list.

 

 

(Hendrix 1968)

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Television Episode

Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Television Episodes, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Title of Program. Original Air Date. "Title of Episode." Episode number

(if applicable). Directed by Name of Director. Written by

Name of Writer. Narrated by Name/s of Narrator/s

(if applicable). Performed by Name of Performer/s

(if applicable). Name of Network.

Journey to Planet Earth. 1999. "Land of Plenty, Land of Want."

Directed by Hal Weiner. Written by Hal Weiner. Narrated by

Kelly McGillis. PBS.

(Journey to Planet Earth 1999)

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Television Series

Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Television Series, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Title of Program. Original Air Date. Directed by Name of Director, Written by

Name of Writer, Narrated by Name/s of Narrator/s. Performed

by Name/s ofPerformer/s. Name of Network.

Journey to Planet Earth. 1999. Directed by Hal Weiner, Written by Hal Weiner,

Narrated by Kelly McGillis. PBS.

(Journey to Planet Earth 1999)

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Image or Advertisement

Choose the source type from the list:

More in-text citation information


Online Image

Chicago Manual 15.53, 14.280, 15.3 and 8.193


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Running Text Example:

Dorothea Lange's 1936 photograph Destitute Pea Pickers, which is part of the Library of Congress's America from the Great Depression to World War II: Black-and-White Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945, shows a mother with three of her seven children.

Reference List Format:

Author's Last Name, Author's First Name. Date of Work. Title of Work.

Format of Image from Source, "Collection Name." URL.

Reference List Example:

Lange, Dorothea. 1936. Destitute Pea Pickers in California. Mother of

Seven Children. Age Thirty-Two. Nipomo, California.

Copy of nitrate negative in JPEG and TIFF file from

the Library of Congress, "America from the Great

Depression to World War II: Black-and-White

Photographs from the FSA-OWI, 1935-1945." http://hdl.

loc.gov/loc.pnp/fsa.8b29516.

Note: In the author-date system, the manual suggests citing the sources in the running text of your paper instead of using in-text citations. For the reference list, the manual suggests citing the sources in a separate section.

 

 

(Lange 1936)

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Work of Art

Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Works of Art, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Artist's Last Name, Artist's First Name. Date. Title of Work, Museum

Name, Museum Location.

Hopper, Edward. 1929. Railroad Sunset. Whitney Museum of American

Art, New York.

Note: In the author-date system, the manual suggests citing the sources in the running text of your paper instead of using in-text citations. For the reference list, the manual suggests citing the sources in a separate section.

 

(Hopper 1929)

 

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Advertisement

Note: The Chicago manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite Advertisements, but the library suggests that you cite as described below based on guidelines for similar citations.


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Product, Company, or Institution Name. Date of Publication. "Title of

Advertisement" (if applicable) Advertisement. Name of

Publication, page number (for print) or URL (for electronic).

Banana Republic. October 2006. Advertisement. InStyle, 51.

Note: In the author-date system, the manual suggests citing the sources in the running text of your paper instead of using in-text citations. For the reference list, the manual suggests citing the sources in a separate section.

 

(Banana Republic 2006)

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Indirect Source

Chicago Manual 15.52


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Reference List Format:

Give the citation for your secondary source. Use the appropriate citation format for your source, e.g. book or article.

Reference List Example:

Zelizer, Barbie. 2003. Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory

through the Camera's Eye. Chicago: University of

Chicago Press.

Note: An indirect source is a source that quotes or paraphrases another source. An example would be Sontag's On Photography cited in Zelizer's book Remembering to Forget. Use the format below only if you are unable to examine the original source material (e.g. Sontag's On Photography). The Chicago Manual of Style discourages the use of secondary sources.

In Susan Sontag's 1977 book On Photography (quoted in Zelizer 2003, 11) ...

Note: Cite the original source in the running text of your paper. Cite the indirect source in parenthesis with "quoted in."

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Additional In-text Citation Examples


Basic Form

Chicago Manual 15.21-15.22


In-text Citation Format:

(Author's Last Name Publication Date, Page Number (if needed))

In-text Citation Examples:

(Zelizer 2003, 11)

(Chavez 2006)

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Placement of In-text Citations

Chicago Manual 15.24-15.25 and 13.66-13.68

 

An in-text citation is usually placed before any punctuation, except for in the case of a block quote; then the citation is placed after the punctuation mark. The period is not needed after the closing parenthesis.

Example:

Block Quote:

The purpose of an ethical code is to delineate, for the members of the profession and for the public at large, the issues of greatest concern and the areas of potential conflict between individual action and the purposes of the group, and to guarantee that the special expertise of the group will be used for the good of society. (Benedict 1988, 176)

For run-in quotations, the in-text citation is placed after the closing quotation mark. If a quotation ends with a question or exclamation point, then the punctuation is retained inside the quotation mark, and a period is added after the citation.

Examples:

Run-in Quote:

"No single memory reflects all that is known about a given event, personality, or issue" (Zelizer 2003, 3).

Quotation Ending with a Question Mark:

"Do we do a disservice to our colleagues and to our profession by placing so little emphasis upon understanding ethics, with the concomitant inability to judge our actions upon firm ethical principles?" (Benedict 1988, 175).

If an author's name appears in the text, then it does not need to be repeated in the citation.

Examples:

Henry (2006) uses triangulation to study the United Kingdom's Buddhist population.

Mock and Parker (1997) subscribe to the theory that siblings ...

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Multiple References

Chicago Manual 15.29

Separate each citation with a semicolon.

Example:

(Mock and Parker 1997; Bukatko and Daehler 2004; Dacso et al. 1995

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Bible

Chicago 14.252-255


Reference List Format
:


In-text Citation:

Title and version. Year of Publication. Place of Publication: Publisher.

The Bible: Authorized King James version.1998. Oxford: Oxford

University Press.

Notes: Books of the Bible can be abbreviated, for example, Lev., Num.

The Reference List format is not required, but may be used to reference a particular version.

 

(John 3:2-5)

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Other Resources

For more examples and information on how to format your paper

Online Resources

Print Resources

  • The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (Ref. Z 253.U69 2010)

For additional help, contact a Reference Librarian

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