Plenary Address

"Transforming the World and Being Transformed"

Commitment to Justice Conference


Jesuit Justice Conference, June 18 2009

As President of Fairfield University it is my pleasure to welcome you all here for this conference, "Transforming the World and Being Transformed." It is a particular honor to be asked to address you this evening, and to offer my reflections on our mission as Jesuit and Catholic educators to work in the service of faith "of which the promotion of justice is an absolute requirement."[1] This mission was given to us and the whole Society by the 32 General Congregation of the Society of Jesus, and as has been continually affirmed by subsequent congregations and meditations on our mission as educators ever since.           

This weekend we have a rare opportunity to reflect upon how far we have come in the service of this mission since the "Commitment to Justice in Jesuit Higher Education Conference" at Santa Clara in 2000, when Fr. Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, in his keynote address, issued the challenge to all our Jesuit colleges to grasp the impact of this mission and apply it to every aspect of our institutions. In the years since - and with the additional inspiration and refinements offered by Paul Locatelli and Dean Brackley at the conference at John Carroll University in 2005- all of our institutions have changed, and in varying ways have reinvigorated our obligation to serve the promotion of justice. We have enhanced those programs that expose our students to the "gritty reality,"[2] as Fr. Kolvenbach put it, of poverty, illiteracy, oppression, hunger, exploitation and a host of other global issues that we are duty-bound to embrace as our apostolate.

I hope and expect that this conference will serve as further inspiration for us to renew our commitment to this mission with optimism, and as an opportunity to share ideas with one another - what has worked, what hasn't worked, how much deeper can we go - so that we can progress on this path in unity and with a shared sense of purpose.

It has been almost ten years since Fr. Kolvenbach's address, and what I hope to do this evening - somewhat in the spirit of the Jesuit tradition of the "Examination of Conscience" - is to reflect on what has transpired over the past few years, giving thanks to God for the gifts we have received, and then suggest some challenges we face as we take this transformative mission into a new decade.

You are all aware of the justice-related activities at your universities, and indeed, it is impressive to visit the Justice Web site maintained by Loyola College in Maryland and to look at what is going on in each of our 28 institutions. Of course I'm most familiar with what we are doing at Fairfield, but a brief tour of the service programs on the site illustrates how central the promotion of justice has become for us.

As Fr. Kolvenbach put it, "The real measure of our Jesuit universities lies in who our students become… and the adult Christian responsibility they will exercise in future towards their neighbor and the world."[3] I think we have taken that message to heart, and we have much to be thankful for in the degree to which our students, faculty, and staff have thrown themselves into our service-learning, sustainability and community engagement programs.

To draw attention to just a few: At Wheeling Jesuit University, students do service work in Appalachia; Santa Clara maintains a student immersion program in El Salvador; at Rockhurst, students teach computer and literacy skills to Haitian immigrants in Kansas and Burundian refugees in Omaha; students at Marquette are in the midst of their preparations for an immersion trip in January where they will work in the schools of Belize. At Regis University, the "Tinsana" project is engaged in an ongoing commitment to develop libraries for schools in Ghana.

"I want to influence my friends to get involved... I came to see the realization that I've lived a sheltered life," said one Creighton student after a service trip in Calhoun City. This is precisely the kind of conversion of heart and intellectual and moral epiphany that we hope for when we ask our students to step outside their comfort zone and engage with the "gritty reality" of the world. As Fr. Kolvenbach said, as Jesuits we have always sought to educate the "whole person," but the whole person of the 21stt century is not the "whole person" of the Renaissance. In the current global reality, full of possibilities and contradictions, a world that is pluralistic and interrelated to an unprecedented degree," the "whole person" of our age cannot be whole without an educated awareness of the inequities and suffering that are the lot of the majority of our brothers and sisters. 

It is our mission as educators to "raise our Jesuit educational standard to ‘educate the whole person of solidarity for the real world.' Solidarity is learned by ‘contact' rather than ‘concepts,'" Fr. Kolvenbach continued. "When the heart is touched by direct experience, the mind may be challenged to change. Personal involvement with innocent suffering, with the injustice others suffer, is the catalyst for solidarity which then gives rise to intellectual inquiry and moral reflection." [4]

At Fairfield - where I have a more immediate grasp on things - about 400 of our students participate every year in service-learning programs. Meanwhile, our Center for Faith and Public Life focuses faculty research in areas of international justice like the economic exploitation of undocumented populations in this country and around the world. Out of this has sprung the Jesuit Universities Humanitarian Action Network, a project initiated by Fairfield in conjunction with Georgetown and Fordham to prepare our students to respond to humanitarian crises, such as the Asian tsunami, hurricane Katrina, and so on. It is our hope that this project will serve as a point of co-ordination on humanitarian action for the 28 colleges and Universities in the ACJU.

Many of these programs were in place in some form prior to 2000, but I think it is fair to say that the "promotion of justice" has gathered impetus over the last 9 years. The "contact" encounters that convert the hearts of our students happen more often than they ever have, and for that we must be grateful.

So, where do we go from here? Well, I believe that the "seven higher standards for higher education"[5] put forward by Fr. Dean Brackley at the conference in 2005 remain as pertinent today as they did four years ago. He summarized them this way:

"First, a Jesuit university strives to understand reality, the real world. Second, since Christian education pursues wisdom, the central focus of study is the drama of life versus death, of good versus evil, injustice versus liberation. Third, we must pursue a discipline that will free us from bias. Fourth education should help people to discover their vocation in life, above all their vocation to love and serve. Fifth, a Jesuit university must be a place where the Catholic faith is studied and handed on to those who would embrace it. Sixth, we must reach out to those who otherwise could not afford to come. Finally, we must communicate knowledge and criticism beyond the campus, into the wider society."

I'd like to draw particular focus this evening to just three of these challenges that I believe require deeper reflection - although if time permitted we could reflect on all seven.

Access to Education:

First, I think a matter that must be of grave concern is the rising cost of higher education and the disturbing truth that it is becoming increasingly difficult for talented students from lower income families to attend our universities. This is an injustice that we must make a priority, because our American Jesuit universities were "originally founded to serve the educational and religious needs of poor immigrant populations,"[6] and it is the tradition of the Jesuit mission to bring education to those who might otherwise be deprived of it.

St. Ignatius, after his conversion, dedicated the next stage of his life to seeking the education he needed to realize his vocation. This is why we have put education at the center of our Jesuit way of proceeding - because Ignatius believed that God was, in truth, The Educator par excellence and that God was intentionally educating him from one moment to the next, developing him into a whole person, prepared for the task God set before him.

We are educators because we believe that through education, men and women are liberated into the fullness of their true human potential, as Ignatius was liberated. What could be more critical then to the "promotion of justice" in our country and in our world than to address the yawning gap between the rich and the poor where access to education is concerned?

Yet the trends even within our own universities are a cause for alarm. The current global economic recession, the implications of increased unemployment, decreasing state and federal aid, smaller endowments, decreasing alumni contributions - the percentage of alumni making contributions has decreased in the AJCU every year since 2003 - and other economic pressures on families suggests that at least in the foreseeable years, providing access to those who would otherwise go without higher education may be the most critical justice issue that we face.

Just to give you some perspective, according to the National Center for Public Policy, the cost of higher education has increased by 439 percent since 1982, while the median family income has increased by only 147 percent in that time. It seems clear that the economic trends are making our universities more exclusive - and not more inclusive. By one estimate, a family in the upper income bracket may have to pay up to 9% of its income to send a student through a four-year college, while family in the low-income bracket may have to spend as much as 55% of its entire income to do the same. This is obviously more than we can expect lower and middle-income families to bear.

The result of these trends is predictable enough: According to the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, between 1.4 and 2.4 million students who were qualified and capable of attending a four-year college over the last ten years did not do so because of the cost. This number will now certainly increase.

Given this, you might expect that universities - most of which have an expressed interest in increasing the diversity of their student populations - would be assigning more of their financial aid to students based on need. But this is not so, and in a number of our Jesuit universities, the trend is in the opposite direction, toward more merit-based financial aid. The majority of university financial aid in this country goes to students with families earning over $100,000 a year.

At Fairfield, we have developed programs like the Bridgeport Tuition Program, which provides free tuition to students in our area whose families earn less than $50,000, and we are increasing our need-based financial aid. Other universities have similar programs.

But justice demands that we do more. Clearly, if we intend to "promote justice" we had better be prepared to do so in our own backyard and put our money where our mouth is. I suspect what this demands is that we should all be prepared to shift more of our financial aid away from "merit-based" financial aid, towards "need-based" financial aid, and I challenge all of our Jesuit colleges and universities to do so. If we want our universities to serve as communities where transformative dialogue can take place between different faiths, cultural backgrounds and socio-economic perspectives, then we need to ensure that students from every background have the opportunity to take part.

This shift will have implications: First, with fewer resources and more student need, we will have to make tough decisions about where our money goes. We need to look at things like big time varsity athletics, elaborate facilities, and boutique programs of various stripes and ask in what way and to what degree do they work in the "service of faith and the promotion of justice."

We may also have to look at our graduate schools and professional programs. In many cases they add to the prestige of our universities and attract gifted faculty, but as our resources contract, we need to question whether they should all be sustained. This is particularly true where our graduate programs are not very highly regarded. As Jesuits with a commitment to academic excellence and the "Magis" asking ourselves whether we should be dedicating resources to programs that are not making serious scholarly contributions in an already glutted graduate school environment is a course we should pursue. Perhaps we should be looking at greater cooperation when it comes to our graduate programs - an idea incidentally, that has been kicked around by American Jesuit colleges and universities in the past but never seems to go anywhere.

As we assess the direction of graduate and professional programs in a time of shrinking resources, we need to ensure that our Jesuit values are integral to the mission of these programs, and not just a "bonus" feature, tacked on as an afterthought.

Should our professional programs - our medical, law, business schools, and so on - be tailored specifically toward the "service of faith and the promotion of justice" as our primary focus, to the exclusion of more secular concerns? Pope John Paul II, writing in the 1987 encyclical Sollicitudo rei Socialis on the 20 anniversary of Paul VI's Populorum Progressio wrote that "The motivating concern for the poor - who are in the very meaningful term, ‘the Lord's poor' - must be translated at all levels into concrete actions" by Christians until we decisively attain a series of necessary reforms. [7] He goes on to list the reforms that are required to include reform of the international trade system; the reform of the world monetary and financial system; the framework of the international juridical order, and so on. We might add the reform of systems that allow for the exploitation of migrant workers in this country and around the world; and the inequities in health care between rich and poor.

My question then is this: should our business, law, medical, and other professional schools be explicitly dedicated to educating young men and women who will tackle these problems - men and women who are trained specifically for "contact" as Fr. Kolvenbach put it? Are we prepared to take such a step with the knowledge that it might mean that some of our schools would slip out of the mainstream or - horror of horrors! - move down in the rankings? Are we prepared to turn off many potential students and faculty in doing so?

I don't propose to answer those questions tonight, but simply to suggest that our obligation to make a Jesuit education accessible will mean making hard decisions about all dimensions of our institutions in the future.

Free us from Bias

I want to touch briefly too, on the question of bias. The purpose of our service-learning programs and immersion programs is precisely to expose our students and faculty to "contact" with other perspectives. But one thing I think we need to maintain in our consciousness as we move forward, particularly in the developing world, is that we fully understand what is meant by a "well-educated solidarity." Specifically, we need to monitor our thinking, and shift our focus from what our interests are, to a more "global consciousness" that considers the mutual interests that we share with the "Lord's poor" in the developing world, or the poor within our own borders.

There's no question that we want our students to have "contact" with the "gritty reality" of injustice, but we need to be careful that we don't indulge in some kind of spiritual and moral tourism in the process, where we dip our students and faculty into the "gritty reality" for the purposes of their formation, without really being conscious of what the experience of our presence is like for those who happen to live in that "gritty reality" full-time. What kind of emotional and spiritual footprint do we leave when we engage in these programs?

I'm not suggesting that we would be consciously insensitive. But we do need to ensure that we are really listening to what those who are suffering are asking for, and that we are motivated by a sincere desire to respond empathically to their needs and not by our interests in the formation of our students, or the conduct of our research.

What I'm suggesting is that the center of gravity needs to shift from "us" - the promoter of justice - to a fuller consciousness of the "we" - the full mutuality of relationship that is only possible when we truly open our doors and give all that we have to give and receive what is being offered to us in return.

Catholic "solidarity" is the understanding that each of us is alike in dignity, and is in fact - whether friend or enemy, oppressed or oppressor - made in the image and likeness of God.

So as Fr. Locatelli pointed out in 2005, "solidarity" calls for more from us than merely a passion for justice. It calls on us to understand that our own freedom and full potential is only realized within a community of persons, within a communion that is bigger than mere "interconnection or interdependence.[8]"

To grasp this understanding of solidarity then is to grasp that the preferred "point of view" on the world is not ours. It's isn't something that we have some privileged access to as well-educated representatives of American universities. The preferential option for the poor is also a call to adopt the priorities of those whom we are presuming to be helpful to.

In practical terms, this may mean that we should be thinking about how to bring more students to our universities from the developing world; that we should be bringing more faculty into our campuses from the developing world; and that we find ways to share the great resources that we have.

One practical idea that was presented to me that I like very much is making our library and research facilities more accessible to our academic colleagues in these countries. For no cost and little effort, our universities could add hundreds of academic colleagues to our personnel databases as "research affiliates," giving them access to more up-to-date information and research in their areas of expertise. By doing so, we could collectively have a significant impact on the educational programs in many nations.

We are fortunate this weekend to be joined by representatives from Nicaragua, India, and Colombia, and I look forward to hearing their thoughts on the question of bias over the next couple of days.

The Catholic Faith:

Finally, I want to touch briefly upon our obligation as Catholic and Jesuit educators to teach and encourage the Catholic Faith.

Since the foundations of the Society in 1540, Jesuits have been "officially and solemnly charged with ‘the defense and the propagation'"[9] of the faith, although the wording was changed by General Congregation 32 to that of the "service of faith." This service of faith cannot be separated from the "promotion of justice." Rather, the promotion of justice is our responsibility because the teaching of our faith and the love of God that is the heart of the Christian experience moves us in compassion and charity toward a love of our fellow men and women. It is because we love, and because our faith demands that we love, that we are moved to transcend our own personal egoism and seek what is good and true, not just for ourselves, but for our neighbors. As Decree Four of the 32nd General Congregation puts its:

"The Christian message is a call to conversion: conversion to the love of God, which necessarily implies conversion to the love of men, which necessarily includes conversion to the demands of justice. If then, we are to be faithful to our apostolic mission, we must lead men to the fullness of Christian salvation: to the love of the Father in the first instance, and to the love of neighbor as an inseparable consequence of that love."[10]

So the "promotion of justice" is not something that we can split off from our obligation to serve the faith, it is rather something we are called to do as a consequence of our faith. Nor can justice be promoted and pursued as an end in itself, with our duty to be of "service" to the Catholic faith placed in the background as an afterthought. Rather the "promotion of justice" is an extension of our obligation to love our fellow men and women that is itself a naturally flowing extension of God's love for us, and our love of God.

Lest we be in any doubt about what this means for us, Pope Benedict XVI in his meeting with catholic educators at the Catholic University of America last April said that first "and foremost every Catholic educational institution is a place to encounter the living God who in Jesus Christ reveals his transforming love and truth."[11] As Catholic educators, it is our mission to awaken in our students a love for an objective truth that transcends the personal and the subjective, and leads them towards a lived experience of the unity of truth, an experience which liberates our students into a genuine freedom. That freedom finds its ultimate expression in a life of faith.

This is a notion of freedom that is at odds with a secular notion of personal liberty, and it is a notion of freedom that is at odds with the life that many of our students will have been living prior to their arrival on our campuses. This is not the freedom of being able to do whatever you want to do whenever you want to do it, what the pope calls in this document a "distorted" notion of freedom. He continues:

"Freedom is not an opting out. It is an opting in - a participation in Being itself. Hence authentic freedom can never be attained by turning away from God. ...A particular responsibility therefore for each of you and your colleagues," he says, addressing all of us in Catholic higher education, "is to evoke among the young the desire for the act of faith, encouraging them to commit themselves to the ecclesial life that follows from this belief."[12]

Now this raises a number of difficulties: First, as universities with a commitment to academic freedom and cultural pluralism, how do we "evoke among the young the desire for the act of faith" without trampling on our students personal liberty, their freedom to experiment, to embrace other faiths, or to embrace no faith at all?

Second, as academic institutions pursuing work with scholars of all backgrounds in the common pursuit of knowledge, how do we put faith at the center of what we do without being perceived as having a proselytizing agenda that undermines our expressed commitment to open and unbiased scholarship?

These are legitimate dilemmas that Jesuit institutions have been wrestling with - in some degree or other - since the beginning. At this point, I would simply say that we will have to continue to make calibrated adjustments in the ways in which we present and encourage the Catholic faith so that we do so in a way that is measured and appropriate to each circumstance.

However, the "service" and "encouragement" of faith does remain an obligation of Jesuit universities. The reason that we need to "encourage" religious faith in our students, is that if we want them to grow to become men and women for others then we are probably in many cases going to have to teach them how to love along the way.

In his first encyclical, Deus Caritas Est, Pope Benedict meditates on the nature of love, and he describes what he calls a "path of ascent" [13] through which our human attraction for one another - eros - is brought into a great unity and expression as we grow in love. If love develops within us and grows, then God becomes implicated by necessity, and eros becomes a first step towards a bigger and broader capacity for love. Eventually, erotic attraction develops to include a perspective in love that experiences selfless concern for the wellbeing of the other. This love "increasingly seeks the happiness of the other," the encyclical continues, "is concerned more and more with the beloved." Empathy develops, and out of that empathy and genuine love for one person becomes a capacity to care for the wellbeing of others in general.

So human love, which may begin as erotic attraction can develop and deepen and lead toward the experience of agape, of selfless love for our fellow men and women. This then, is what is meant by the path of ascent in love: "True eros," the Pope writes, "tends to rise in ecstasy toward the Divine, to lead us beyond ourselves."[14]

In Catholic terms, the active expression of agape - a love that transcends self-interest and is concerned for the wellbeing of others - is caritas, or charity.

Now charity is a concept that is often placed in contrast with that of the promotion of justice, and the word has taken on a negative connotation for many in the field of Catholic social thought and in the minds of various Catholic activists.

For many "charity" has become synonymous with a kind of passivity, whereby Christians who are involved in charitable activities - dispensing food or money or clothes to the poor for instance - do so without paying any attention to the unjust social structures that made the poor, the poor in the first place. In other words, charity, in the eyes of some, preserves the status quo and in fact, can work in the service of injustice by propping up the power structures and putting a band-aid on the suffering those structures generate.

The "promotion of justice" by contrast, is seen as a deeper and more committed Christian stance. The promotion of justice is a willingness to take direct action to reverse or overturn or confront the social structures that are responsible for creating poverty and oppression, leading to long-term solutions.

But I think Pope Benedict's point about charity in the encyclical and elsewhere is that it is the duty of all Christians to seek justice and it specifically the duty of lay Catholics to seek the "just ordering of society"[15] through political means. Indeed, the Pope writes that "the Church wishes to help form consciences in political life and to stimulate greater insight into the authentic requirements of justice as well as greater readiness to act accordingly."[16]

But he goes on to clarify that the specific duty of the Church as Church to be a body of faith, and it is through that faith that we come to a love of God, that leads to a charitable orientation of heart that directs us towards what is just.

So, charity is the practice of the Church as a community of love. It is not "a kind of welfare activity which could equally well be left to others, but is part of her nature, an indispensable expression of her very being."[17] It is out of Christian charity then that our desire for true justice springs.

We are left, then, with the responsibility that as Jesuit educators, concerned with the promotion of justice, one of the things that we need to do is to encourage our students in the faith. More specifically, we need to encourage our students along the "path of ascent" of love, because we can't presuppose that our students come to us with a developed capacity to love or that the "path of ascent" is all that clear to them. Many will come to us from difficult family circumstances that have hurt them; they come to us exploited by a culture that relentlessly preys on their insecurities and anxieties, that tells them explicitly that "hooking up" for instance, is a harmless, casual activity and that appearing on a television reality show is a reasonable way to go about seeking "love"; they come to us saturated by the narratives of material success and sensual gratification that are predominant in our culture and may make generosity seem like a weakness; they may come to us with prejudices that make them unwilling embrace the welfare of others.

This is why our efforts to create community living situations for our students and to develop integrated learning and living experiences are so important. The "path of ascent" from desire to agape requires a process of developmental maturation, deepening relationships, and time for moral and spiritual reflection. We need to maintain and promote the environmental conditions that make this possible. This is where the Spiritual Exercises and the time-tested methods of Ignatian pedagogy come into play. We do have to create a learning environment that will free our students to explore their capacity to love, so that out of that love will come a charitable heart that will be drawn to work for the promotion of justice.


So to conclude: our mission in the service of faith and the promotion of justice, as Fr. Kolvenbach noted when he launched us firmly on this path nine years ago, is "not something that a Jesuit University accomplishes once and for all. It is rather an ideal to keep taking up and working at, a cluster of characteristics to keep exploring and implementing, a conversion to keep praying for."[18]

As we push deeper into this mission, and more fully appreciate the "gritty realities" that we are called upon to make the focus of our efforts, I am suggesting that we also need to be more willing to confront the "gritty realities" of our institutional blind spots and limitations.

As we gather this weekend to talk about the things that we would like to do to transform the world, it is my hope that we will also be prepared to talk seriously about what we are prepared to do without as we transform ourselves.

There is no question that opening our doors to more talented students is our number one obligation in the service of justice. That means that we are going to have to find, or more probably, reallocate, the money to make this happen. I suspect it means that we are going to have to give up some of what we are currently holding onto - programs that serve our institutional pride as opposed to our fellow men and women.

Most specifically, we need to challenge our institutions to shift from a "merit-based" to a "need-based" financial aid model.

There's no point in talking about promoting justice around the world if we aren't going to promote it in our own institutions.

Second, as we more fully embrace a global consciousness, we have to deepen our understanding of what is meant by a "well-educated solidarity." What stands in the way of our shifting our consciousness from "us" to "we?" Are we aware of what it is like to be on the receiving end of our justice and service initiatives? Do we ask?

We know from experience that our students return from their service-learning experiences with a jolt to their perspectives and often, with an experience of conversion of heart and a desire to do more. But then what? Do we have a "next step" in place so that this temporary conversion can be nurtured into a more permanent revolution of consciousness? Are we making the resources of our institutions available to the global community, bringing scholars from the developing world to our campuses in significant numbers? Are we doing all we can to make our facilities available? Are we listening to what those in need are asking for, or are we - perhaps unconsciously - exploiting those we purport to serve for the purposes of the formation of our students?

I would suggest that this exploration of our own cultural bias requires a ceaseless process of self-examination, one that calls on us to do less talking, and more listening.

Finally, and perhaps most fundamentally, we have to bear in mind that "the way to faith and the way to justice are inseparable ways,"[19] and that the promotion of justice cannot and should not be undertaken in isolation from our duty to encourage the faith. This not simply a matter of having Catholic Studies programs and making religious studies part of our core curricula - though it does mean that. What it truly means is that we need to become communities bound together by love, and infused therefore with the virtue of charity, which is the love of God as it is expressed in the love we have for one another. I would suggest that charitable love is the wellspring of the love of justice, and that a pursuit of justice that is not fundamentally an expression of charity is not in keeping with our mission, or with our fundamental identity.

We are being asked by the Church as Jesuit and Catholic Universities to embrace more deeply an understanding of charity and to make our institutions places where the faith is encouraged and developed, and so we must do this. 

To say that our universities and colleges are fundamentally about teaching people how to love is pretty big step. To say so, may even expose us to ridicule in some quarters. But it would seem to me that teaching people how to love is precisely the mission of the Society of Jesus - it always has been. 

The service of faith and promotion of justice is the road that we are called to follow as Jesuit institutions - this "undivided road, this steep road, that the pilgrim Church must travel and toil,"[20] in the words of the 32nd General Council. As we meet together in fellowship this weekend, let us ask for God's guidance and inspiration as we take another step along this road together.

Thank you.

[1] 32nd General Congregation of the Society of Jesus, Decree 4, in" On the Relationship Between Faith and Justice," The Society of Jesus in the United States, p. 1
[2] Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S.J., "The Service of Faith and the Promotion of Justice in American Higher Education," discourse given at Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, California, Oct. 6, 2000, P. 9.
[3] Kolvenbach, "The Service of Faith," p. 9
[4] Kolvenbach, p. 9
[5] Dean Brackley, S.J.,"Justice and Jesuit Higher Education," discourse given at John Carroll University, Oct. 13-16 2005, pp 2-3.
[6] Kolvenbach, p. 1
[7] Pope John Paul II, Sollicitudo rei Socialis, n. 43, p.41
[8] Locatelli, p. 3
[9] Kolvenbach, pg. 4
[10] Decree 4, 32nd GC. cited from "On the Relationship Between Faith and Justice," A collection of key documents from the Society of Jesus, etc., The Society of Jesus in the United States.
[11] Benedict XV1, "Conference Call of the Catholic University of America in Washington D.C., Thursday, 17 April, 2008, p. 1
[12] Benedict XVI, "Conference Call of the Catholic Universities," p. 4
[13] Deus Caritas Est, n. 6, p 5
[14] Ibid, p. 5
[15] Deus Caritas Est, n. 28, p. 20
[16] Ibid, n.28, p. 21
[17] Deus Caritas Est, n.25, p.19
[18] Kolvenbach, p. 13
[19] GC, 32. Decree 2, n.8, as cited in Kolvenbach, p. 14
[20] GC 32, as quoted in Kolvenbach, p.13.